Document Type


Publication Date



This chapter documents a content analysis of 62 media reports related to the 2011 blue-green algae (BGA) outbreak on Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees, Oklahoma. A three-stage crisis model is used to understand the media framing and crisis communication related to the event. Media reports were categorized according to modality. The data set included: traditional media reports (n=21, 33%), online blogs (n=7, 11%), and online press releases (n=34, 54%). These units of analysis represent both controlled and uncontrolled media representations of the crisis event. The objectives of this analysis are to understand how risk and crisis communication strategies were utilized before, during and after the BGA outbreak. Five strategies and techniques for improving crisis communication effectiveness are detailed. Limitations and implications are provided.


Chapter 11