Excerpt: "Do the Indian students of the Powhattan, Kansas grade school achieve as well in arithmetic, spelling, language, and reading as their white classmates? Achievement is measured by the Iowa and Stanford achievement tests. The grades tested were from three to eight inclusive during the school years 1955-1956 and 1956-1957. [...] Some of the patrons of the Powhattan Grade School District feel that it is necessary to bring in white pupils from other districts to our already overcrowded school. The argument used is that they are needed to keep up the quality of classwork. They feel that if the white students outnumber Indian students that this will be accomplished. The purpose of this study is to find out if this argument is valid in the field of basic skills as measured by standardized achievement tests. Another purpose of this study is to determine if there is a great need to study the Indian student further. The purpose of further study would be to determine how to help the Indian student improve in the basic skills, if they do not achieve as well as the white students."
Sprague, Carroll G., "The Educational achievement of Indian children in the Powhattan, Kansas, Grade school" (1957). Research Problems, 1947-1991. 58.