Date of Award

Winter 12-15-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Dr. Ram Gupta

Second Advisor

Dr. Khamis Siam

Third Advisor

Dr. Timothy Dawsey

Fourth Advisor

Dr. John Franklin


Polyurethane (PU) is a versatile material that finds extensive use in various industries including bedding, construction, automotive, and packaging. Historically, this particular polymer relied significantly on petrochemical resources, a practice that was considered to have negative environmental impacts. The conventional method for preparing PU involves the use of isocyanate, which is a disadvantage due to its negative impact on the environment and human health. The resolution of this problem entails identifying an appropriate substitute for petroleum-derived products that minimize their impact on both the environment and human health. The researchers earlier utilized soybean oil, for the formulation of PUs in this replacement [1]. Hence, researchers are consistently conducting experiments on non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU).

This study focuses on the preparation of non-isocyanate polyurethane for using as a wood adhesive. The process involved epoxidation, followed by carbonation, to produce carbonated soybean oil. The synthesized carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) was then blended with ethylenediamine (EDA) to produce a NIPU adhesive network. To analyze the synthesized CSBO, various confirmatory tests such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), viscosity, iodine value, and epoxy value were conducted. The synthesized NIPU adhesive was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to investigate improvements in the thermal and mechanical characteristics of the green polyurethane glue, silicon (Si) nanoparticles were included as a filler, with different particle sizes of 100 nm, 200-300 nm, and 500 nm. In addition, to investigate the tensile strength of the NIPU adhesive, a single lap joint specimen was subjected to testing using a tensile testing instrument. To cure the specimen, a manual clamping technique was used, and specimens were then kept in the oven at various temperatures & times to achieve the ideal sample for further testing with fillers. With the control NIPU sample, 8.81 MPa of shear strength was recorded. As expected, after incorporating fillers in NIPU adhesive, the highest shear strength was achieved at 9.85 MPa. Apart from this, a contact angle test was also performed to observe the hydrophobicity of the sample. This work brought a facile path to produce NIPU adhesive from soybean oil which could be further used as a wood adhesive.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.