Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




This study was designed to investigate the following questions: 1) Does self-esteem change over a one year period (as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale)? 2) What is the extent and direction of individual score changes? and 3) Are there grade and/or gender differences in change patterns? Subjects (N=328) were students, K-9, in the Baxter Springs, Kansas, school district. Descriptive statistics, t-tests and one-way ANOVA were preliminary analyses. To answer question #1, a two-way ANOVA was used with gender and grade as independent variables and a "difference score" between the two times of testing as the dependent variable with Least Significant Differences contrast post hoc analyses done when appropriate. To look at individual differences, (question #2) differences in scores between the two times of testing were computed for each individual. Increases or decreases of more than the standard error of measurement of the Piers-Harris instrument were considered "real" changes. Increases, decreases and no change were computed for males and females in each class, K-9. This was done for Total Score and the six cluster scores of the Piers-Harris - Behavior, Intellectual and School Status, Physical Appearance and Attributes, Anxiety, Popularity, and Happiness and Satisfaction. Findings revealed that over a one year period, there is change in self-esteem, generally in an upward trend. There were more changes in Total Score and Physical Appearance and Attributes than the other cluster scores. Kindergarteners of both genders had the most change with fifth grade females and fourth grade males following. Possible reasons for change and the patterns of change are discussed.


v, 77 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm. Bibliography: leaves 51-57.


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