Date of Award

Spring 5-12-2018

Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)



First Advisor

Dr. Karen Johnson

Second Advisor

Dr Trina Larery

Third Advisor

Dr. Greg Belcher


Roughly 25 million American adults experience pain, and 23 million others withstand severe assiduous pain that is disabling and results in decrease work productivity, loss of quality of life and diminished health (Meldrum, 2016). Treatment of pain, including chronic and acute low back pain includes a multidisciplinary approach merging cognitive-behavioral, psychological and physical therapies, respite, pain coping management and self-hypnosis (Meldrum, 2016). In 1999, pharmaceutical companies reassured physicians that opioid pain relievers were not addictive, and the prescribing rate began to increase (NIH, 2017). The quantity of opioids being prescribed has quadrupled since 1999 which has led to an increase in diversion and misuse of these medications, thereby increasing the overdose rate from opioids. This abuse and addiction to opioids has become a crisis of epidemic proportions in the US with deaths from overdose now a leading cause of injury death (APSE issue Brief, 2015).